Gail Grant

Technical Manual and Dictionary of Classical Ballet

From adagio to voyage, over 800 steps, movements, poses, and concepts are fully defined. A pronunciation guide and cross-references to alternate names for similar steps and positions that vary from the Russian to the French or Italian schools are also invaluable aids.
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    Cabriole [ka-bree-AWL]. Caper. An allegro step in which the extended legs are beaten in the air. Cabrioles are divided into two categories: petite, which are executed at 45 degrees, and grande, which are executed at 90 degrees. The working leg is thrust into the air, the underneath leg follows and beats against the first leg, sending it higher. The landing is then made on the underneath leg. Cabriole may be done devant, derrière and à la seconde in any given position of the body such as croisé, effacé, écarté, etc.
    Cabriole, double [DOO-bluh ka-bree-AWL]. Double cabriole. This is a cabriole in which one leg strikes the other in the air two or more times before landing.
    Cabriole, grande [grahnd ka-bree-AWL]. Big cabriole. A step of elevation with the leg thrust high into the air at 90 degrees.
    Cabriole, petite [puh-TEET ka-bree-AWL]. Little cabriole. A small cabriole executed at 45 degrees with little elevation.
    Cabriole à la seconde [ka-bree-AWL ah la suh-GAWND]. Cabriole to the second position. Cabriole à la seconde follows the same principle as for devant and derrière. The leg which opens to the side may be either the backward or forward one according to the preceding step.
    Cabriole derrière [ka-bree-AWL deh-RYEHR]. Cabriole behind. This cabriole is done in either croisé or effacé, and follows the same technique as cabriole devant, but the back leg opens to the desired position and is therefore on top and is beaten from below by the supporting leg. The position of the body is en arabesque.
    Cabriole devant [ka-bree-AWL duh-VAHN]. Cabriole in front. This cabriole may be done facing either croisé or effacé. The most widely used cabriole is the cabriole devant in effacé. Fifth position R foot front. Demi-plié and open the R leg forward in effacé. Leap upward off the L foot. While the body is in the air the L leg is drawn to the R and beats it with the calf, sending the R leg higher. The legs must be fully extended with the knees taut and the toes well pointed. The landing is made on the L foot in demi-plié. If the cabriole is ouverte the R leg remains in the air in effacé, but if the cabriole is fermée the R leg closes in demi-plié in the fifth position front. The leg may be raised à la hauteur or à la demi-hauteur according as the cabriole is grande or petite.
    Cabriole fermée [ka-bree-AWL fehr-MAY]. Closed cabriole. In the cabriole fermée the working leg is closed to the fifth position.
    Cabriole fouettée, grande [grahnd ka-bree-AWL fweh-TAY]. Big cabriole whipped. This is a cabriole devant in effacé finishing en arabesque.
    Cabriole italienne [ka-bree-AWL ee-ta-LYEN]. Italian cabriole. This is a variation of the cabriole fouettée in which the beat occurs after the body has turned into the arabesque position.
    Cabriole ouverte [ka-bree-AWL oo-VEHRT]. Open cabriole. If the cabriole is ouverte, the working leg is held in the air in the desired pose, such as arabesque, effacé devant, croisé devant and so on.
    Cadre [KA-druh]. Framework or division. A term of the French School. Refers to the divisions in the Paris Opéra ballet. See Défilé.
    Cambré [kahn-BRAY]. Arched. The body is bent from the waist, backward or sideways, the head following the movement of the body.
    Cambré renversé [kahn-BRAY rahn-vehr-SAY]. Renversé arched or tilted. A term of the French School. Same as pas de bourrée renversé.
    Carré, en [ahn ka-RAY]. See Quarré, en.
    Cavalier. The male partner of the ballerina.
    Cecchetti, Enrico [en-REE-koh cheh-KET-tee]. This Italian dancer and ballet master (1850–1928) was born in Rome, son of Cesare Cecchetti and Serafina Casagli. He studied with Giovanni Lepri, who was a pupil of the great Carlo Blasis, and made his debut at La Scala, Milan, in 1870. He toured Europe as a premier danseur and made his debut at the Maryinski Theatre, St. Petersburg, in 1887. He accepted the position of second ballet master at the Maryinski Theatre in 1890 and two years later became instructor at the Imperial School. His pupils included Pavlova, Nijinsky, Karsavina, Fokine, Preobrajenska, Kchessinska and Egorova. In 1902 he left for Warsaw, where he became director of the Imperial School, and in 1905 returned to Italy. Returning to Russia, he opened a private school and later became the private tutor of Anna Pavlova, touring the world with her. From 1909 to 1918 he was the official instructor to the Diaghilev Ballet Company. From 1918 until 1923 he had a private school in London. He then returned to Italy and became ballet master at La Scala in 1925. He devoted the rest of his life to teaching and perfecting his teaching methods.
    Cecchetti method. Enrico Cecchetti, one of the world’s outstanding teachers of ballet, established a system of passing on the tradition of ballet to future generations of dancers. This system, the Cecchetti method, was codified and recorded by Cyril Beaumont, Stanislas Idzikowski, Margaret Craske and Derra de Moroda. The method has a definite program of strict routine and includes a table of principal set daily exercises for each day of the week. The Cecchetti Society was formed in London in 1922 to perpetuate his method of teaching. In 1924 the Society was incorporated into the Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing. Entrance to the Society is by examination and students must pass through a carefully graded system which has done much to raise the standard of dancing and teaching throughout the British Empire.
    Centre practice. Centre practice, or exercices au milieu, is the name given to a group of exercises similar to those à la barre but performed in the centre of the room without the support of the bar. These exercises are usually performed with alternate feet and are invaluable for obtaining good balance and control.
    Chaînés [sheh-NAY]. Chains, links. This is an abbreviation of the term “tours chaînés déboulés”: a series of rapid turns on the points or demi-pointes done in a straight line or in a circle. See Déboulés; Tour, petit.
    Chaînés papillon [sheh-NAY pa-pee-YAWN]. Chaînés like a butterfly. This is a series of chaînés with the arms held out to the side in the second position. As the R foot steps forward, the R arm is lowered and the L raised; then, as the second half of the turn is done on the L foot, the L arm is lowered and the R raised.
    Changé, changée [shahn-ZHAY]. Changed. If the term changé is added to the name of a step, the feet have changed places during the step and the foot originally in front will have finished in the back or vice versa. See Changer, sans.
    Changement battu [shahnzh-MAHN ba-TEW]. Changement beaten. Same as royale.
    Changement de pieds [shahnzh-MAHN duh pyay]. Change of feet. The term is usually abbreviated to changement. Changements are springing steps in the fifth position, the dancer changing feet in the air and alighting in the fifth position with the opposite foot in the front. They are done petit and grand.
    Changement de pieds, grand [grahn shahnzh-MAHN duh pyay]. Large change of feet. This changement requires a deeper demi-plié and a much stronger push from the floor in order to rise higher. The dancer should aim at remaining the shortest length of time on the ground and as long as possible in the air. In the Cecchetti method and

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