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Joseph D'Amelio

Perspective Drawing Handbook

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    IT IS AWAYS ON THE SAME LEVEL AS THE OBSERVER’S EYES.
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    Aid No. 2: Eye Level (Horizon Line) – All Horizontal Lines Converge To A Single Horizontal Vanishing Line At Eye Level
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    REGARDLESS OF DIRECTION, EACH SET OF PARALLEL LINES WILL CONVERGE TOWARD ITS OWN VANISHING POINT.
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    Vanishing Points (Cont.)–When There Are Many Sets Of Parallel Lines Going In Different Directions, Each Will Converge Toward Its Own Vanishing Point
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    ALL LINES WHICH IN REALITY ARE PARALLEL WILL CONVERGE TOWARD A SINGLE VANISHING POINT
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    FORESHORTENING: LINES AND SURFACES ALWAYS APPEAR LONGEST WHEN PARALLEL TO THE OBSERVER’S FACE (i.e., TO THE PICTURE PLANE). AS THEY REVOLVE AWAY FROM THIS POSITION THEY APPEAR INCREASINGLY SHORTER. Why
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    CONVERGENCE: PARALLEL LINES APPEAR TO APPROACH EACH OTHER AS THEY RECEDE.
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    DIMINUTION – OBJECTS OF EQUAL SIZE APPEAR SMALLER AS THEIR DISTANCE FROM THE OBSERVER INCREASES
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    the word perspective comes from the Latin word “perspecta” which means “to look through.”
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    THIS PLANE HAS A CONSTANT RIGHT ANGLE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CENTRAL VISUAL RAY
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    The eye looking at a distant object will focus at that object’s range; things in the foreground, consequently, will be “out of focus” and therefore blurred
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    Details, textures and patterns, such as blades of grass, the bark of trees, leaves, the distinguishing features of people, etc., are also clear and discernable when close but become “fuzzier” and less sharp when further away
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    the bark of trees
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    SHADES AND SHADOWS: Naturally the shape and structure of three-dimensional objects can be understood only when viewed in some form of light. But it’s really the shades and shadows created by this light that render the shapes “readable” and discernable
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    Color And Value Perspective
    Values (black to white range) and colors are bright and clear when seen close up but become grayer, weaker, and generally more neutral as their distance from the observer increases.
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    CONVERGENCE EQUALS DIMINUTION PLUS FORESHORTENING
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    Convergence – Lines Or Edges of Objects Which In Reality Are Parallel Appear To Come Together (i.e., Converge) As They Recede From Observer
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    Foreshortening – Lines Or Surfaces Parallel To The Observer’s Face Show Their Maximum Size. As They Are Revolved Away From The Observer They Appear Increasingly Shorter
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    Diminution – Objects Appear Smaller As Their Distance From The Observer Increases
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